Collaborative Applied Research

Registry Studies

Ureteral Stenting After Ureteroscopy for Stone Treatment, A Global Perspective on Indications and Outcomes (, uCARE 2018-001)

Primary sponsorsSociété Internationale d'Urologie
Secondary sponsors (if any)
Overall study statusOngoing
Recruitment statusClosed

Descriptive Information

Study rationale

The majority of patients with stones receive an indication for its active removal by ureteroscopy. In the last two decades, endourological treatment techniques have evolved with several technological advances through miniaturisation of ureteroscopes, digital improvements, and optical imaging enhancement techniques leading to a better image quality, and the development of different disposables such as single-use digital ureteroscopes. This advancement has led to an increased number of indications for ureteroscopic treatment. Aside from this, there are no specific contraindications for ureteroscopic treatment, apart from general problems such as being unfit for anaesthesia or the presence of urinary tract infections, according to the EAU guidelines.

The indications for active stone removal of ureteral stones include persistent pain or obstruction, renal insufficiency, and in cases when spontaneous passage is less likely. The indications for active removal of renal stones include stone growth, stone formation in patients who are at high risk for stone formation, symptomatic patients, infection, obstruction, stones larger than 15 mm and the comorbidity profile, social situation and preference of the patient.

The procedure can be performed using semi-rigid instruments, mainly for ureter stones, and/or by flexible ureteroscopes, for complete inspection and treatment of the upper tract.

The exit strategy after stone treatment varies depending on patient characteristics and comorbidity, residual stone load, per-operative details and complications, and surgeons’ preference. Stent placement is recommended by the EAU guidelines in case of increased postoperative complications; in cases of residual fragments, bleeding, perforation, pregnancy or urinary tract infections; as well as in all doubtful cases to avoid stressful emergencies.

Postoperative stenting increases postoperative morbidity and we should carefully balance the pros and cons of postoperative stenting in each individual case. The ideal stent duration is not known. Ureteral stents are usually removed 1-day postoperatively and most urologists will remove double Js 1-2 weeks postoperatively.

It remains a matter of debate whether to stent a patient postoperatively after a ureteroscopic procedure despite the EAU guidelines statement that routine stenting after an uncomplicated  procedure with complete stone removal is not necessary.

Study objectives

Primary Objective:

To assess current indications of postoperative ureteral stenting after ureteroscopy for urinary stone treatment.

After each procedure, we will assess whether a stent is placed and the surgeon has to clarify for what reason the stenting was performed (e.g. need for secondary surgery, residual stones, per-operative complications, ureteral lesion, ureteral stricture, ureteral oedema, difficult ureteral access, use of UAS, duration of surgery, solitary kidney, surgeon’s preference or others).

Secondary Objectives:

1. To assess the type (ureter catheter or JJ) and material of stent used.

2. To assess the duration of indwelling time indicated by the surgeon and the actual indwelling time.

3. To identify current set-up for ureteral stent removal. Are the stents removed at the physician’s office (flexible or rigid cystoscopy), in the operating room (OR) by (flexible or rigid) cystoscopy, or at home by the patient (self-removal by a string attached to the JJ).

Medical conditionstone disease
Study populationAll patients >18 years old with a ureter or renal stone that are planned for ureteroscopic treatment are eligible for this registry.
Treatment typeN/A
Primary outcome measures

Primary Outcome Measure:
1.Incidence of patients receiving an internal drain following treatment for urinary stones by ureteroscopy. This number will be reported as a % of the total patients enrolled.

[Time Frame: 12 months]

Secondary outcome measures

Secondary Outcome Measures:

  1. Number of patients requiring secondary interventions [N]Post-operative secondary interventions include JJ placement, ureter splint placement, nephrostomy tube placement, reURS, clot removal, pharmacological intervention, or other. [Time Frame: 12 months]
  2. Number of patients requiring pain medication at discharge [N]Pain defined as that requiring additional therapy or pain medication, or prolonged hospital stay due to pain. [Time Frame: 12 months]
  3. Duration of the actual internal drain indwelling time [days]This number is auto-calculated based from the date of surgery, and date of stent removal or post-operative visit (if no stent was used) [Time Frame: 12 months]
  4. Duration of the internal drain indwelling time as indicated by the surgeon [days]Calculated as number of days. [Time Frame: 12 months]
  5. % of patients who required anaesthesia for stent removal [Yes/No]This intraoperative information will be provided by surgeon to indicate whether anesthesia was required during stent removal. Data to be reported as % of total patients. [Time Frame: 12 months]
  6. Incidence of use of flexible instruments for stent removal following ureteroscopy. As indicated by treating surgeon [Yes/No response]. [Time Frame: 12 months]

Recruitment Information

Date of first enrollment2018-06-07
Study start date2018-06-01
Estimated study completion date2019-06-01
Estimated primary completion date2019-06-30

Study population:

All patients >18 years old with a ureter or renal stone that are planned for ureteroscopic treatment are eligible for this registry.

Inclusion criteria
  1. Patient >18 years old
  2. Patient is a candidate for ureteroscopic treatment of a ureter or renal stone by semirigid and/or flexible ureteroscopy
Exclusion criteria

Patient <18 years old

Primary Facility Contact
First nameJoyce
Last nameBaard
Email[email protected]
Overall Study Officials
First nameJoyce
Last nameBaard
Organizational affiliationAcademic Medical Centre, Amsterdam,The Netherlands
Official's roleStudy Principal Investigator


Turkey - Leader
NameMehmet Balasar
Turkey - Leader
NameMahmud Zahid Ünlü
Turkey - Leader
NameMehmet Kaynar
NameYue Cheng
NameGuohua Zeng
NameAthanasios Dellis
NameAthanasios Papatsoris
NameStavros Gravas
NameCharalampos Mamoulakis
NameAnastasios Anastasiadis
NameNur Rasyid
NameSanjay Kulkarni
NameSafendra Siregar
NameJohan Renaldo
NameKadek Budi Santosa
NameIndrawarman Soerohardjo
NameTaufiq Nur Budaya
NameSeyed Habibollah Mousavibahar
NameMurtadha Almusafer
NameSundeep Chavda
NameTeng Aik Ong
NameRohan Malek
NameVijayan Manogran
NameGuan Chou Teh
NameSaiful Azli
NamePetrisor Geavlete
Saudi Arabia
NameRaed Azhar
Saudi Arabia
NameRaed Azhar
South Africa
NameShingai Mutambirwa
South Korea
NameSung Yong Cho
NameYeong-Shiau Pu
NameChia-Cheng Yu
NameChung-Cheng Wang
NameHsu-Che Huang
NameAtilla Aridogan
NameCenk Y. Bilen
NameGuven Aslan
NameN. Aydin Mungan
NameBora Kupeli
NameSelcuk Guven
NameM. Ilteris Tekin
NameBulent Onal
NameEmrah Yuruk
United States
NameMichael Borofsky
NameRohit Ajmera
NameYinghao Sun
NameLei Cui
NameWei Xue
Saudi Arabia
NameAli Obied


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